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Full text of "Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographic Society in the Yakutat Bay, Prince William Sound and lower Copper River regions"

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GLACIERS OF ALASKA                                         19
The Ahlclun Mountains. The ATiklnn or Oklune Mountains, a small group north of the Alaska peninsula near Bristol Bay are reported by Spun*1 to still retain glacierlets, the one in cirque on Mt. Oratia being specifically mentioned. The mountains had previously been more fully occupied by local glaciers.
Islands of Bering Sea. In the shallow Bering Sea none of the islands, St. Lawrence, Nunivak, Hall, St. Matthew, and the Pribilof Islands, all of which are low and in a region of low precipitation, contain glaciers, and none seem to have ever been glaciated.2
Glaciers oj the Endicott Mountains. The Rocky Mountains of northern Alaska, which reach an elevation of 5000 to 7000 feet in a latitude north of the Arctic circle, have an annual precipitation of only 6 to ^12 inches and, therefore, maintain only small glaciers. One stagnant, dying glacier can be definitely referred to, an isolated debris-covered block observed in 1901 by Schrader and Peters * in the middle of the John River valley near the divide in latitude 68° north. It was then a detached circular mass 800 feet in diameter and 60 feet high. Schrader4 speaks of other small glaciers seen by prospectors in the eastern part of the Endicott Mountains. Mendenhall reports the western Endicott Mountains as formerly glaciated,5 and Maddren has described the present ice tongues and the former glaciation of the eastern Endicott Mountains, both in the part near the Hodzana Highland and Chand-alar River6 and in the region along the 141st meridian7 between Porcupine River and the Arctic Ocean.
Baird Mountains. The Baird Mountains, which form the western extension of the Endicott Mountains, contain small glaciers, for they are from 2000 to 3000 feet high, higher than the mountains of Seward Peninsula, farther south, which still have small ice remnants. Smith8 has described several of thesmall ice tongues and discussed the former glaciation. It seems quite certain that Baird Mountains were formerly extensively glaciated, for these mountain valleys must have fed the great valley glacier which extended down Kobuk River to the Bering Sea.9
Glaciers of the Seward Peninsula. Small glaciers are known to exist in the mountains of Seward Peninsula, which are 1800 to 2500 feet high, and receive 20 to 25 inches of precipitation yearly. The region is proved to have formerly had much more extensive
» Spun-, J. E., 20th Ana. Sept., TL S. Geol. Survey, Part VII, 1900, pp. 258-254 and Map No. 10.
• Dall, W. H., Alaska and its Resources, Boston, 1870, p. 462.
Muir, John, Report of the Cruise of the U. S. Revenue Steamer Corwin in the Arctic, 1881, pp. 133-145. Dawson, G. M., Geological Notes on Some of the Coasts and Islands of Bering Sea and Vicinity; Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., Vol. V, 1894, pp. 117-146.
Stanley-Brown, J., Geology of the Pribilof Islands: Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., Vol. HI, 1892, pp. 496-500. Nordenskiold, A. E., The Voyage of the Vega, New York, 1882, pp. 588-^585, 669. Gilbert, G. K., Glaciers and Glaciation: Harriman Alaska Expedition, Vol. HE, 1904, pp. 186-194.
• Schrader, P. C. and Peters, W. J., Professional Paper 20, U. S. GeoL Survey, 1904, pp. 84-91. « Same, pp. SO and 91.
«Mendenhall, W. C., Professional Paper 10, TJ. S. Geol. Survey. 1902, pp. 45-48. •Maddren, A. G., Bull. 582, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1918, pp. 60-67. 7 Ibid, personal communication.
• Smith, P. S., Bull Geol. Soc. Amer. Vol., 28, 1912, pp. 568-570.
• Hershey, 0. H., Journ. Geol., VoL XVII, 1909, pp. 88-91.